Leaching and extraction of critical metals (incl. the use of ultrasound or light)

  • C. Borra, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Leaching of rare earths from bauxite residue (red mud)", Sustainability through Resource Conservation and Recycling '14 - download
  • C. Borra, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Leaching of rare earths from bauxite residue (red mud)", Minerals Engineering, 76, 20-27 (2015) - download
  • B. Van den Bogaert, D. Havaux, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Photochemical recovery of europium from rare-earth mixtures", Green Chemistry 17, 2180–2187 (2015) - download
  • M.A.R. Önal, C.R. Borra, M. Guo, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven,"Recycling of NdFeB Magnets Using Sulfation, Selective Roasting, and Water Leaching", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1 (3), 199-215 (2015) - download
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes. K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Smelting of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) in View of Iron and Selective Rare Earths Recovery", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy DOI: 10.1007/s40831-015-0026-4 - download
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes. K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Selective Leaching of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue after Sulphation Roasting", Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices, Leuven, Belgium, October 2015, P301 - download
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes. K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Smelting Reduction of Iron Oxides from Bauxite Residue in view of Improved Rare Earths Leaching", 4th International Slag Valorisation Symposium Leuven, Belgium, April 2015, P149 - download
  • M. Enis Leblebici, Simon Kuhn, Georgios D. Stefanidis, Tom Van Gerven,"Milli-channel mixer and phase separator for solvent extraction of rare earth elements", Chemical Engineering Journal, 293 (2016) 273–280 - download
  • C.R. Borra, et al.,"Selective recovery of rare earths from bauxite residue by combination of sulfation, roasting and leaching", Minerals Engineering, 92, 151-159 (2016). - download
  • B. Van den Bogaert, L. Van Meerbeeck, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Influence of irradiance on the photochemical reduction of europium(III)", Green Chemistry 18, 4198-4204 (2016) - download
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Recovery of Rare Earths and Other Valuable Metals From Bauxite Residue (Red Mud): A Review", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, DOI 10.1007/s40831-016-0068-2 - download
  • CR. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Comparative Analysis of Processes for Recovery of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue", JOM,68,(11),2958-2962,(2016),DOI: 10.1007/s11837-016-2111-y - download
  • C.R. Borra, B. Blanpain, Y. Pontikes, K. Binnemans, T. Van Gerven,"Recovery of Rare Earths and Major Metals from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud) by Alkali Roasting, Smelting, and Leaching", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, (2016), DOI 10.1007/s40831-016-0103-3 - download

Ionic liquids (IL) technology for critical metal recovery

  • S. Wellens, R. Goovaerts, C. Möller, J. Luyten, B. Thijs and K. Binnemans,"Continuous ionic liquid extraction process for the separation of cobalt from nickel", Green Chemistry 15, 3160-3164 (2013) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S. Wellens, K. Verachtert, K. Binnemans,"Removal of transition metals from rare earths by solvent extraction with an undiluted phosphonium ionic liquid: separations relevant to rare-earth magnet recycling", Green Chemistry 15, 919-927 (2013) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, B. Onghena, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions with a functionalized ionic liquid", The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 4, 1659−1663 (2013) - download
  • A. Rout, J. Kotlarska, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans,"Liquid-liquid extraction of neodymium(III) by dialkylphosphate ionic liquids from acidic medium: the importance of the ionic liquid cation", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 15, 16533-16541 (2013). - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, B. Onghena, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of rare earths with the betaine - betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid system", International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14, 21353-21377 (2013). - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Liquid–liquid extraction of europium(III) and other trivalent rare-earth ions using a non-fluorinated functionalized ionic liquid", Dalton Trans., 43, 1862–1872 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths and nickel by solvent extraction with two mutually immiscible ionic liquids", RSC Advances, 4, 5753-5758 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid–liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase", Dalton Trans., 43, 3186-3195 (2014) - download
  • S. Wellens, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, C. Möller, B. Thijs, J. Luyten, K. Binnemans,"Dissolution of metal oxides in an acid-saturated ionic liquid solution and investigation of back-extraction behaviour to the aqueous phase", Hydrometallurgy, 144-145, 27-33 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths and nickel by solvent extraction with two mutually immiscible ionic liquids", RSC Advances 4, 5753–5758 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout and K. Binnemans,"Solvent extraction of neodymium(III) by functionalized ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium dioctyl diglycolamate in fluorine-free ionic liquid diluent", Industrial & Enginereering Chemistry Research 53, 6500–6508 (2014) - download
  • B. Onghena, J. Jacobs, L. Van Meervelt, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of neodymium(III) by choline hexafluoroacetylacetonate in the ionic liquid choline bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide", Dalton Transactions 43, 11566–11578 (2014) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, K. Binnemans,"Highly efficient separation of rare earths from nickel and cobalt by solvent extraction with the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium nitrate: process relevant to the recycling of rare earths from permanent magnets and nickel metal hydride batteri", Green Chemistry 16, 1594-1606 (2014) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Selective extraction of metals using ionic liquids for nickel metal hydride battery recycling", Green Chemistry 16, 4595-4603 (2014) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Applying ionic liquids to rare earth separations", Proceedings of the 1st European Rare Earth Resources Conference (ERES 2014), Milos (Greece), 4-7 September 2014, pp. 278–290 - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, K. Binnemans,"From NdFeB magnets towards the rare-earth oxides: a recycling process consuming only oxalic acid", RSC Advances 4, 64099-64111 (2014) - download
  • A. Rout and K. Binnemans,"Influence of the ionic liquid cation on the solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions by mixtures of Cyanex 923 and ionic liquids", Dalton Transactions 44, 1379–1387 (2015) - download
  • B. Onghena, K. Binnemans,"Recovery of Scandium from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, , 54 , 1887–1898 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont and K. Binnemans,"Rare-earth recycling using a functionalized ionic liquid for the selective dissolution and revalorization of Y2O3:Eu3+ from lamp phosphor waste ", Green Chemistry 17, 856–868 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, K. Binnemans,"Recycling of rare earths from NdFeB magnets using a combined leaching/extraction system based on the acidity and thermomorphism of the ionic liquid [Hbet][Tf2N]", Green Chemistry 17, 2150–2163 (2015) - download
  • S. Riano, K. Binnemans,"Extraction and separation of neodymium and dysprosium from used NdFeB magnets: an application of ionic liquids in solvent extraction towards the recycling of magnets ", Green Chemistry 17, 2931–2942 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, S. Raiguel, K. Binnemans,"Sulfonic acid functionalized ionic liquids for dissolution of metal oxides and solvent extraction of metal ions ", Chemical Communications 51, 9006–9009 (2015) - download
  • D. Parmentier, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S.J. Metz, K. Binnemans, M.C. Kroon ,"Selective extraction of metals from chloride solutions by a low-viscous oleate ionic liquid", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 54, 5149–5158 (2015) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Metal recovery from nickel metal hydride batteries using Cyanex 923 in tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate from chloride aqueous media ", Sustainable Metallurgy 1, 161–167 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, D. Depuydt, K. Binnemans,"Overview of the Effect of Salts on Biphasic Ionic Liquid/Water Solvent Extraction Systems: Anion Exchange, Mutual Solubility and Thermomorphic Properties", Journal of Physical Chemistry B 119, 6747-6757 (2015) - download
  • K. Larsson and K. Binnemans,"Separation of rare earths by split-anion extraction", Hydrometallurgy 156, 206–214 (2015) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, J. Blockx, H. De Coster, K. Binnemans,"Selective Metal Separations by a Triphasic Ionic liquid – Water – Ionic Liquid System", Chemistry a European Journal 21, 11757–11766 (2015) - download
  • D. Depuydt, L.W. Liu, C. Glorieux, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans,"Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction of metal ions with non-fluorinated bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ionic liquids having a lower critical solution temperature in combination with water", Chemical Communications 51, 14183–14186 (2015) - download
  • D. Depuydt, W. Dehaen, K. Binnemans,"Solvent Extraction of Scandium(III) by an Aqueous Biphasic System with a Non-Fluorinated Functionalized Ionic Liquid", Industrial & Enginereering Chemistry Research 54, 8988–8996 (2015) - download
  • B. Onghena, T. Opsomer, K. Binnemans,"Separation of cobalt and nickel using a thermomorphic ionic-liquid-based aqueous biphasic system", Chemical Communications 51, 15932–15935 (2015) - download
  • B. Onghena, C.R. Borra, T. Van Gerven, K. Binnemans,"Selective recovery of scandium(III) from bauxite residue leachates by solvent extraction with a carboxyl-functionalised ionic liquid", Proceedings of the Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference 2015, Leuven (Belgium), 5-7 October 2015, pp. 331-337 - download
  • D. Dupont, K. Binnemans,"Antimony recovery from the halophosphate fraction in lamp phosphor waste: a zero-waste approach", Green Chemistry 18, 176-185 (2016) - download
  • D. Dupont, E. Renders, K. Binnemans,"Alkylsulfuric acid ionic liquids: a promising class of strongly acidic room-temperature ionic liquids", Chemical Communications 52, 4640–4643 (2016) - download
  • D. Dupont, E. Renders, S. Raiguel, K. Binnemans,"New metal extractants and super-acidic ionic liquids derived from sulfamic acid", Chemical Communications 52, 7032–7035 (2016) - download
  • D. Parmentier, T. Vander Hoogerstraete, D. Banerjee, Y.A. Valia, S.J. Metz, K. Binnemans, M.C. Kroon,"Mechanism for solvent extraction of first row transition metals from chloride media with the ionic liquid tetraoctylammonium oleate", Dalton Transactions 45, 9661-9668 (2016) - download
  • A. Rout, K. Binnemans,"Efficient separation of transition metals from rare earths by an undiluted phosphonium thiocyanate ionic liquid", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 18, 16039-16045 (2016) - download

Direct electrolytic reduction

  • A. Mukherjee, N. Campagnol, J. Van Dyck, J. Fransaer, and Bart Blanpain,"Compatibility Issues of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Solid Oxide Membrane in the Direct Electro-Deoxidation of Metal Oxides", Journal of the American Ceramic Society, doi: 10.1111/jace.13397 (2014) - download
  • A.Mukherjee, N. Campagnol, J. VanDyck, J. Fransaer, B. Blanpain,"Stability of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Membrane in Molten CaCl2-CaO Melt", Conference: Materials Science and Technology 2014, At Pittsburgh, USA, Volume: Corrosion Testing and Modelling, 823-831, 2014 - download

Recycling of critical metals (general papers and reviews)

  • Koen Binnemans, Peter Tom Jones, Bart Blanpain, Tom Van Gerven, Yongxiang Yang, Allan Walton, Matthias Buchert,"Recycling of rare earths: a critical review", Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, 1-22 (2013) - download
  • K. Binnemans, Y. Pontikes, P.T. Jones, T. Van Gerven, B. Blanpain,"Recovery of rare earths from industrial waste residues: a concise review", Proceedings of the Third International Slag Valorisation Symposium, 19-20 March 2013, Leuven (Belgium), 191-205. - download
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, K. Van Acker, B. Blanpain, B. Mishra, D. Apelian,"Rare-Earth Economics: The Balance Problem", Journal of Metals (JOM) 65, 846–848 (2013) - download
  • K. Binnemans,"Lanthanides and actinides in ionic liquids", Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II (Second Edition) Volume 2: Transition Elements, Lanthanides and Actinides, 641–673 (2013). Editors-in-Chief: Jan Reedijk and Kenneth Poeppelmeier ( Elsevier, Amsterdam). - download
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones,"Perspectives for the recovery of rare earths from end-of-life fluorescent lamps", Journal of Rare Earths, 32(3), 195-200 (2014) - download
  • K. Binnemans,"Economics of rare earths: the balance problem", Proceedings of the 1st European Rare Earth Resources Conference (ERES 2014), Milos (Greece), 4-7 September 2014, pp. 37–46 - download
  • K. Binnemans and P.T. Jones,"Rare Earths and the Balance Problem", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1, 29–38 (2015) - download
  • K. Binnemans,"Interpretation of europium(III) spectra", Coordination Chemistry Reviews 295, 1–45 (2015) - download
  • K. Binnemans, P.T. Jones, B. Blanpain, T. Van Gerven, Y. Pontikes ,"Towards zero-waste valorisation of rare-earth-containing industrial process residues: a critical review ", Journal of Cleaner Production 99, 17–38 (2015) - download
  • D. Dupont, S. Arnout, P.T. Jones, K. Binnemans,"Antimony Recovery from End-of-Life Products and Industrial Process Residues: A Critical Review", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, 1 (3), 199-215, 2015 - download
  • K. Binnemans,"Rare earths: essential elements for the transition to a low-carbon economy", Proceedings of the Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference 2015, Leuven (Belgium), 5-7 October 2015, pp. 291-299 - download
  • D. Dupont, S. Arnout, P.T. Jones, K. Binnemans,"Antimony recovery from end-of-life products and industrial process residues: a critical review", Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy 2, 79–103 (2016) - download
  • P.T. Jones and K. Binnemans,"Towards zero-waste valorisation of landfilled stocks and fresh flows of critical-metal-containing industrial process residues: a critical review", Proceedings of the Third International Academic Symposium on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM III), Lisboa (Portugal), 8-10 February 2016, pp 150-173 - download

Other Critical Metal relevant papers

  • J. Roosen, K. Binnemans,"Adsorption and chromatographic separation of rare earths with EDTA- and DTPA-functionalized chitosan biopolymers", Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2, 1530–1540 (2014). - download
  • D. Dupont, W. Brullot. M. Bloemen, T. Verbiest, K. Binnemans,"Selective uptake of rare earths from aqueous solutions by EDTA-functionalized magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 4980–4988 (2014) - download
  • T. Vander Hoogerstraete, S. Jamar, S. Wellens, K. Binnemans,"Determination of Halide Impurities in Ionic Liquids by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) Spectrometry", Analytical Chemistry 86, 3931–3938 (2014) - download
  • D. Dupont, J. Luyten, M. Bloemen, T. Verbiest, K. Binnemans,"Acid-stable magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for the separation of rare earths", Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 53, 15222–15229 (2014). - download
  • J. Roosen, J. Spooren, K. Binnemans,"Absorption performance of functionalized chitosan-silica hybrid materials toward rare earths", Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2, 19415–19426 (2014) - download
  • J. Roosen, S. Van Roosendael, C.R. Borra, T. Van Gerven, S. Mullens, K. Binnemans,"Separation of scandium from leachates of Greek bauxite residue by adsorption with functionalised chitosan-silica hybrid materials", Proceedings of the Bauxite Residue Valorisation and Best Practices Conference 2015, Leuven (Belgium), 5-7 October 2015, pp. 377-383 - download
  • J. Roosen, J. Pype, K. Binnemans, S. Mullens,"Shaping of alginate-silica hybrid materials into microspheres through vibrating-nozzle technology and their use for the recovery of neodymium from aqueous solutions", Industrial & Enginereering Chemistry Research 54, 12836–12846 (2015) - download
  • J. Roosen, S. Van Roosendael, C.R. Borra, T. Van Gerven, S. Mullens, K. Binnemans,"Recovery of scandium from leachates of Greek bauxite residue by adsorption on functionalized chitosan-silica hybrid materials", Green Chemistry 16, 2005-2013 (2016) - download
  • S. Riano, M. Regadio, K. Binnemans, T. Vander Hoogerstraete,"Practical Guidelines for Best Practice on Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Analysis of Aqueous Solutions", Spectrochimica Acta B 124, 109–115 (2016) - download
  • M. Regadío, S. Riaño, K. Binnemans, T. Vander Hoogerstraete,"Direct Analysis of Metal Ions in Solutions with High Salt Concentrations by Total Reflection X ray Fluorescence (TXRF)", Analytical Chemistry, 4595-4603, 2017 - download

Critical Metal papers including KU Leuven authors

  • Julia W. Darcy, H. M. Dhammika Bandara, B. Mishra, B. Blanplain, D. Apelian, and Marion H. Emmert,"Challenges in Recycling End-of-Life Rare Earth Magnets", JOM, DOI: 10.1007/s11837-013-0783-0 - download

Papers by RARE³ Network Partners

  • A. Golev, M. Scott, P.D. Erskine, S.H. Ali, G.R. Ballantyne,"Rare earths supply chains: Current status,constraints and opportunities", Resources Policy, 41, 52-59 (2014) - download
  • K. Žagar, A. Kocjan, S. Kobe,"Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd–Fe–B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF3 ", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 403, 90–96, (2016) - download